I want to set the foundation for this thirteen-part series. It is entitled, Creation: The Foundation of the Christian Faith. This is session one and as I said, it is going to be the foundation. This is going to be a bit of an overview of some of the materials that we are going to be covering over the next twelve sessions.
I am sure many of you, have asked these following questions: Why do I exist? Is there a God who created me or do I exist because of some kind of a process—some kind of chance event? Of course, we are familiar with the term "evolution" and throughout this seminar we want to resolve this issue. We want to search for the truth on origins. We want to examine the claims of those who believe that the evolutionary worldview is true and we want to examine the claims of those who believe that the biblical creation worldview is true. And so, that will be our goal and that will be our objective.
You see, the world, often supported by what is called "science," makes the claim that evolution is the only credible view when it comes to the subject of origins. But the Bible makes it rather clear that there is a Creator and there has been a creation. Many of you were perhaps brought up in Christian homes or have gone to Christian schools. You have been taught there is a Creator—that the biblical worldview is true. But the world itself comes up with all kinds of reasons to discredit the biblical creation perspective. And so, we are going to deal with this issue.
There are many who are brought up in the Christian worldview who attempt to reconcile the dilemma. They say, "Well yes, I believe that there is a God and that creation happened." But, they say, "Perhaps God used evolution to create." And one of my objectives in this seminar will be to make it very, very clear that there is a Creator. There has been a creation process that has occurred and there is no possible way that we need to combine the two worldviews. And as we go through these presentations, it will become very, very clear.
Now, what does the Bible have to say about creation? I have a challenge this evening in that I am going to do a Bible study from Genesis through Revelation and it is going to be on the subject of creation. We are going to pick and choose a few Scriptures, because I want to show you that the Bible makes reference to origins from the beginning through to the end and that it is foundational to the Christian faith.
So let us begin where the Bible begins, in Genesis 1:1, a verse, of course, which everyone can quote.
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. (KJV)
It is interesting (very significant) that the Bible begins with God and origins (creation) in the very first verse. And so, this should tell us that it must be very significant. It must be very important.
And then, when we go to the last verse of the first chapter, Genesis 1:31, we read:
And God saw everything that He had made, and, behold it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (KJV)
So again, just choosing a Scripture (the last verse of the first chapter), it tells us that the Creator made everything. You see, it did not come into existence by some sort of a chance process. There is a supernatural Creator who had a plan, a purpose and He brought things into existence by His design. And notice that it says that it was good; in fact, it was perfect!
Now there is another important principle that we need to establish right at the beginning of this seminar: there is a God who created and things were good, things were perfect, but something happened to the creation and it became imperfect. And we read about that also in Genesis 3:1-6.
Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden. And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. (KJV)
So a significant event occurred according to the Scriptures. God had created Adam and Eve with a free will to choose whether or not they would be obedient to their Creator. And rather than being obedient, we see that they chose to be disobedient. Eve took of the tree, Adam took of the tree, and as a result, something happened to the perfect creation. We read about it in Genesis 3:17-19.
And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. (KJV)
It is at this point we see in biblical history that some major event occurred. The perfect creation became imperfect because of man’s sin, and death was introduced.
Now in spite of this, we see that the creation message (the importance of creation) continues to appear throughout the Scriptures. Just because Adam sinned and Eve sinned, it did not end the significance of this creation message. It does continue, as we read in Psalm 148:1-5. This is what the psalmist writes:
Praise ye the LORD. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens: praise him in the heights. Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts. Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light. Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens. Let them praise the name of the LORD: for he commanded, and they were created. (KJV)
Or let us now look at Isaiah 45:11-12 which is another reference to creation.
Thus saith the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker, Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me. I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded. (KJV)
Now we move to the New Testament, Mark 13:19, where Jesus said:
For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. (KJV)
You see it is very clear. Jesus pointed us to the reality of creation and that there is a Creator.
Now in John 1:1-3 we begin to see some very vivid clues of who the Creator is.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. (KJV)
And then we move to Ephesians 3:8-9, moving now through the New Testament, Paul writes:
Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ; And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: (KJV)
There it is, you cannot miss it. Paul says there is a Creator who made all things and he tells us who the Creator is—it is Jesus! Are you beginning to see the importance of creation? It is the foundation of the Christian faith.
Now we move to the last book of the Bible, Revelation 4:10-11, and here John describes what he saw in his vision in heaven.
The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created." (KJV)
And then one final verse taken from Revelation 14:6-8, where again, John describes something that will be taking place in the not too distant future. He speaks of a time when two angels will proclaim the eternal gospel to the whole world. It will be worldwide crusade, so to speak. And notice what one angel says, John writes:
And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters. (KJV)
The second angel proclaims the judgment coming: "Fallen, fallen, Babylon," he states.
So there we have it, very briefly from Genesis to Revelation, the mention of creation. Now what should this tell us? Well, there is another principle of Scripture which is very important. Jesus said it in John 17:17. It is very simple, Jesus said, "Thy word is truth." And this evening we have been reading the Word from Genesis to Revelation, given by inspiration of the Creator. And it is true. That is what Jesus said, "Thy word is true." And we have been reading these verses about creation, which means there is a Creator. That means there has been a creation.
But there is another important principle we need to understand and we have made reference to it already—something happened to the creation. Why? The Bible says God has an adversary, Satan (the devil, the dragon, the serpent), the one who deceives the whole world. And so wouldn’t it be reasonable to suggest that if God the Creator has an adversary and that creation is true, that the adversary would do all he could do to cause people to doubt the reality—the fact of creation? I think that is reasonable. And one of the things that I want to demonstrate to you in these lessons is that there is an active agenda to advance the idea of (the belief in) evolution, in order to undermine the fact of creation.
There is an adversary who has an agenda, and Paul says that agenda is very effective to deceive the whole world. He wants to deceive people from believing there is a Creator. Why? Because as we are going to see later in this series, creation is foundational to the greatest message that has ever been told and that is the gospel message—that God created. God created man and that man was in a relationship with the Creator, but he fell from that relationship because of sin and from that point on he has been separated.
But the Creator had a plan: He Himself came to this earth in our place. He lived a perfect life. We could not do this, but He did. And His life was sacrificed upon the cross and His blood was shed. The Bible says that whosoever would believe that the Creator did this for us and acknowledges who he is (a sinner) and who He is, could enter into a relationship with the Creator once again, that would last forever. That is the Good News. One of the greatest ways of undermining that message is to cause people to doubt the existence of the Creator.
Creation and evolution are two very different words. I have chosen two colors: white and black (white to represent creation and black to represent evolution). You cannot choose two colors more opposite; so too, are the meanings of these terms. Creation is founded in the truth of what the Bible says. Evolution is based upon the ideas or the speculation of men to try to explain away the Creator.
Now the Bible warns that even believers need to be cautious regarding this agenda to cause people to doubt the truth. For example, in Colossians 2:6-8, Paul writes:
As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in him: Rooted and built up in him, and stablished in the faith, as ye have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving. Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. (KJV)
You see, there is this tendency to place our trust in men, their ideas, their speculations, their reasonings, and their philosophies, rather than in what God has said. And that is understandable in light of the Scriptures. Satan came to Eve saying, ‘Do not believe what God has told you, there is much more.’ And of course, we know what happened. It continues today. There are many who are brought up to believe the truth of Scripture and creation, but later they fall away.
Then we have another warning, this time in First Timothy 6:20-21. Now Paul is writing to Timothy,
O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called. Which some professing have erred concerning the faith. Grace be with thee. Amen. (KJV)
Now this is very interesting. Paul is telling Timothy, "Be careful that you do not place your trust in—and he used this term—‘oppositions of science, falsely so called.’" What does Paul mean by that?
Well, first of all, what do we mean by science? Science is an endeavor to search for the truth. Science must be based on facts and observable observation, experimentation. But, Paul says there is a science that is not science. Why? Because this ‘science’ is not based on fact, observation, or experimentation. And I would suggest to you that there are many things that are taught in the name of science that are not science. And I would also suggest to you that there are many people who have been caught up in deception who once believed but later were deceived, because they placed their trust in science falsely so-called.
Now every time I read this portion of Scripture I am reminded of my own personal journey. And I am sure that most people do not know who I am or what my background is. So I want to begin this first presentation with a short word of testimony, then you will understand why I am here doing what I am doing.
You see, as a child I grew up in a home where my parents reverenced and trusted the Bible. I grew up on a farm in western Canada, province of Saskatchewan—a small town. And as a child, I believed there is a God. I can vividly remember on numerous occasions asking my dad questions, particularly at harvest time. I would be sitting in the field at night and I would look up and see the moon and the stars. And I can remember asking my dad, "Where did they come from?" And my dad, in his simple faith said, "God created them." And I believed it. I believed there was a God who created. Do you know that coded into our hearts is that understanding, that knowledge of God?
Well, I was fascinated with science, particularly biology. And as I went through public school, I wanted to be a biologist. I spent my spare time hunting butterflies and bugs. I wanted to be an entomologist. I had heard some of the ideas in grade-twelve biology about Darwin, but I kind of dismissed it. However, when I graduated and went on to university, something changed.
I will never forget particularly the first midterm. You see, my professor had spent several weeks teaching us the foundations of Darwinian evolution and I had some real problems with it. When it came midterm time and I was writing my exam, rather than answer the question exactly the way I had been taught, I gave some opinions. And when I went to see how well I had done (to see where my name was posted), I discovered it was not there!
And so I went to my professor, who was the head of the biology department, and I asked him, "What happened to my paper?" And he dug my paper out of a stack of about 500 others and he put it to the top of the pile, where all I could see were red marks and slashes. And he said, "You are wasting your time and your parents’ money." And I discovered something: that if I was going to be successful, I needed to listen carefully to what I was being taught. And I made that choice and I did it. And I went on to graduate and did quite well by the world’s standards.
You see, biology taught me that God could be explained away. There was no need for a Creator, it was a Darwinian, evolutionary process. Geology taught me that it was a worldwide flood—Oh, that was mythology—that it happened by a gradual process. And then there was psychology, and then there was philosophy, and it did not take long before my worldview was entirely changed. During the ’60s I became (as I understand it now) a product of the humanist agenda, and then I became a lecturer and I taught others.
I stand before you by the grace of God. I cannot go into the details, but I came to the realization that what I had believed about evolution could not be substantiated by the facts. I started to consider the possibility of creation. And then later I started reading the Bible and I was amazed! I became a Bible-believing creationist and I discovered there was a Creator. But I also discovered something else—He is perfect and I am not.
One night in my living room, after several months of going down this road of searching, I cried out and said, "God, what will You do so I can have peace?" And a verse came into my mind. It was a verse my dad had written in the front page of my Bible that I had been given when I was nine years old. And I went to the Bible and I opened it and I read in his handwriting: John 3:16.
That was twenty-five years ago and from that point on my life has been an adventure, as God has opened doors for me to be able to take the message, not only of creation, but the message that the Bible is true regarding the past. It gives us insight into the present and where we are headed in the future.
We moved to Southern California from Canada in 1988, where I was on staff for three years at Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa. Then God opened the doors internationally and through this seminar I will be telling about certain experiences we have had in various places—over forty countries—but in particular the former Soviet Union how the message for creation has been presented.
Our ministry is called Understand the Times. We use the Scriptures as our source of insight to understanding what has taken place here on this earth and where we are headed in the future.
Now let us continue with an overview of the next twelve lessons. Again, this will be very brief, but it will give you an idea of where we are headed. We are going to talk about the facts regarding origins.
Is the evolutionary theory based on facts and good science? Can the creation view be supported by the observable evidence? This is what we want to uncover in our search for the truth on origins.
First of all: the origin of the universe. I want to read a claim by a scientist who was an evolutionist, Carl Sagan, who is now deceased.
Ten or twenty billion years ago something happened—the Big Bang, the event that began our universe. Why it happened is the greatest mystery we know. That it happened is reasonably clear. All the matter and energy now in the universe was concentrated at extremely high density—a kind of cosmic egg reminiscent of the creation myths of many cultures—perhaps into a mathematical point with no dimensions at all. (Carl Sagan, 200)
This is a statement by a scientist, but if you listen carefully, it contains no science. He says that a minute clump of matter and we have everything which exists in the universe. Could that be demonstrated? Absolutely not! Again, this is a statement by a scientist, but no science.
Regarding the origin of life, Raymond Hawkey, from the book, Evolution: A Story of the Origins of Humankind, states:
After countless chance encounters between organic molecules, an event as miraculous as that which created the universe occurred in the depths of the seas. About 3,500 million years ago, groups of organic molecules came together to form living cells from which all life was ultimately to descend. (Hawkey, 1)
Notice what is said in these three statements: a minute lump of matter exploded and we have the cosmos; these particles came together by chance, bumped into each other and formed a Planet Earth, by chance; and thirdly, non-living particles came together to form life spontaneously. No one has ever observed any facts to support these statements, yet they are believed.
With regard to what happened to life, the evolutionary assumption is that through time (and we will go into this in detail in this series) there was a progression of development from simple to complex. An amoeba over millions of years became a man, and everything in between. But as we are going to observe, there is no evidence in the fossil record to show that this has ever occurred. And you cannot find any living representatives. So again, this is another statement that is not based on science.
What we observe (and we will look at this again in much detail) is the fact that life always comes from preexisting life and that is a law of biology. No one has ever seen life come from non-life. It must come from life. We see that within life we find variation can occur horizontally within genetic boundaries. This we will look at in more detail as we see the variation separated vertically, but horizontally it does occur.
We are going to examine the complexity of life. The claims that evolution says that life can come into existence by chance and progress gradually through time. And we will look at the complexity of cells and cellular functions in the human body. And we will discover that there is no possible mechanism that ever could verify that it has happened.
Another major area that we will examine is the history of life from two perspectives: the evolutionary worldview and the creation worldview, which is based on the Scriptures. We will look at this idea: the evolutionary claims that through time, layers have been laid down gradually over hundreds of millions of years.
It claims that the earth is very, very old and over these hundreds of millions of years as these layers were laid down, they say life lived and died and was buried in a sequential order from simple to complex. But just so that we know in advance what I am going to be showing you, there is not one place in the world where you can find this. It can only be found in a textbook—not in the real world.
Oh yes, we can find layers all over the planet, but the question is, "How long did it take to lay them down? Did it happen gradually or could they have been laid down quickly and catastrophically?" And again, we will show you evidence that it is catastrophic and that we have evidence that has occurred in recent years.
Evolution claims the fact that we find fossils, shows that life has lived millions and millions of years ago. We will examine these claims and how the fossils are found, not in the sequence of evolutionary change from simple to complex, but mixed together, buried, and scrambled. This is exactly the way we would expect it to be from a creation perspective, where the Bible says that God created and things were perfect.
The original earth, also based on Scripture, was much different and something happened to that creation. In the Genesis record, we will study what occurred as the fountains of the great deep broke up, the earth’s crust fractured, the windows of heaven were opened, a cosmic catastrophe occurred as materials were rained down, poured upon the earth, and life was buried and destroyed suddenly—catastrophically! We will examine the two worldviews.
And then another major area we will deal with will be the subject of the origin of man and the evolutionary assumption that we have evolved from brute, apelike creatures. We will compare that with the biblical perspective that man has always been man and he was created. All of us are familiar with this idea that the further back we go in time, the more brute-like were our ancestors. But I will show you the facts. What we have been presented is not a neat sequence of fossils, but paintings and murals and models that are based on fragments.
There are no intermediates that show there has been this process of evolution from apelike creatures to modern man. When the facts (that is the artifacts from archaeology) are presented, they will show that after a great worldwide flood, the world’s population started again in ancient Babylon. And from there after their languages were confounded, they separated and spread around the world and suddenly appear. And we see great civilizations doing exactly what we would believe they could do, based on the Scriptures.
The creation-evolution battle—and that’s what it is. You see, those who believe in evolution say, "We have science to support what we believe." They also say that those who believe in creation are religious people who refuse to look at the evidence. There is a battle going on for the minds of our generation.
Now, you may have this question: "Why is it then, if the evidence does not support this evolutionary worldview, are there so many people who believe it and teach it?" Well, I asked the same question after I became a creationist and then a Christian and this is what I have come to believe: people believe in evolution because they are taught to believe in evolution. And then they are tested on how well they believe. It starts in kindergarten, then continues through high school, college, and museums. You read about it in magazines and hear about it in the news, documentaries and movies.
Another interesting thing to note is that the founding fathers—Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin and others—were not men who were overwhelmed by facts that caused them to question creation. They were looking for ways to explain away the Creator. And again, we will document historically what they believed and why.
Fallen man has always looked for an excuse so that he does not have to believe in God. And as we have already mentioned, he has spiritual help. The Bible describes that the god of this world has blinded human minds.
Evolution, as we are going to see in this series, has had a tremendous impact on the world. For example, atheism is based on evolutionism and I can demonstrate it. I have been to Russia many, many times, and to other parts of the former Soviet Union where Marxism was advanced, based on Darwinism. You see, man was at the top of the evolutionary pile, and in fact, it was enforced that one could not really be educated unless he would accept that there is no God. Evolution was the foundation.
But here in the Western world we have somewhat of a different plan. Humanism is also based on evolutionism. And the founding fathers of the Humanist Manifesto, John Dewey, Francis Potter and others, clearly made it part of their agenda—there is no God. The reason we exist is because of evolution. And by the way, our public schools have become the seminaries to advance that religion.
And then there is a third area that we are going to spend time in this presentation dealing with. And that is the connection between evolution and mysticism. Well, perhaps a better way to describe it would be the New Age. You see, there are many claiming that we are living in an era where man is advancing. This is based upon the Darwinian view that through time there has been this elevation from simple to complex (from lower to higher) and that evolution connects everyone with everything. It is that guiding, directing force which leads us onward and upward that man might emerge to become a super-being.
There are various methods, therapies, and techniques that one can use to attain this level of super-being. By the way, these are not new ideas; they are very old and they are based on Eastern religion, teachings, beliefs, and practices (like yoga and mediation, contacting the spirit world). And so there is a whole religion world wide that is being established. But as we are going to see from the creation worldview, it is not new but the Bible predicts it!
Now, let us kind of draw this all together. Why is creation important? Because it is true! It is so true that Paul tells us in Romans 1 that if you do not believe, there are consequences. And again, I will paraphrase for shortness of time. Paul tells us the following: Evidence that God has created is so obvious from the things that He has made, that if we reject that evidence, we are without excuse. Our foolish hearts are darkened. Professing to be wise we become fools. And rather than believe the truth of creation, Paul says, people will believe a lie (cf. Romans 1:20-25).
If creation is true, then what would be the lie? It seems to me that the lie would be the belief that there is no Creator. And that, it seems to me, would be in line with what we are talking about in this study. The lie is that we exist because of a natural process of chance.
And then Paul describes—and we will have one entire session dealing with this in detail—that when man tosses God off the scene one can make some predictions. And this is what will happen: he will become very spiritual. Oh, he will not worship God who created everything, but he will worship everything that God has created. He will worship the earth as god, the moon as god, the sun as god and he will even worship himself as god.
Secondly, Paul says, "you will note that human behavior will change sexually, men with men, women with women" (cf. Romans 1:26-27).
And thirdly, Paul gives us a whole list that describes human behavior as immoral, having depraved minds (cf. Romans 1:28-31). And by the way, when we read our newspapers it is happening every day around the world.
Creation is foundational because if there is a Creator, we are accountable to Him.
Now, there is one further question that we want to establish from the beginning. Did God use evolution to create? I do not believe so, and I think this is very important. That is why I am establishing it up front. There are people wherever I go in audiences like this, who say, "I believe in God but I believe in evolution." This is called theistic evolution and I am going to give you the reasons why I do not believe it.
These are my reasons: the first is my testimony. When I was an unbeliever, I was an evolutionist; and evolution, for me, was my excuse not to believe in God. My conversion was from evolution to creation to Christ. And now as a Christian who believes in creation, I cannot understand why a Christian would want to accept evolution, which is what I used to use to explain away God.
My second reason is the evidence. I want to demonstrate to you that evolution is a belief system that is not based on fact, and yet, people say that it is. And we will take a lot of time dealing with this. The evidence points to creation, not towards evolution.
My third reason for not believing in theistic evolution is that when Charles Darwin was asked, "Do you think God could have used evolution to create?" He said, "Absolutely not! You do not understand my theory. My theory is based on a natural process. It does not require the supernatural, so do not tie God to evolution. Evolution is this directing force." Darwin himself made it clear you cannot connect the two.
And the fourth reason is that it is just a plain, outright contradiction of terms to say that God used evolution. To say that a supernatural Creator used a natural process of chance, survival of the fittest, dog eat dog—I do not find that in the Scriptures. We will make it clear, as we go through these lessons.
Creation is important because it is absolutely foundational to the Christian faith. You cannot understand the Gospel of Jesus Christ unless you understand that there is a Creator. And Paul demonstrates this in Acts 17. Again, I will paraphrase. Paul, in Athens on Mars Hill, was witnessing to the pagans of his day who were worshipping anything and everything but not the Creator who made everything. And Paul said to them, "I see that you are very spiritual, but," he said, "you are wrong." He pointed out to them that they were worshipping a deity amongst the other deities, called the unknown god. And Paul said, "I will identify to you who this is." He said, "He is the one who created you. He gave you breath. He gave you life. He created the nations. That is why you exist." And then he went on to tell them that they were separated from the Creator because of their sin. And that they needed to repent and to ask the Creator for forgiveness. And then he told them what they could do to acknowledge the Resurrected One, Jesus, the Creator (cf. Acts 17:22-32).
Paul presented the gospel by beginning with creation and in one of our lessons toward the end, that is exactly what we are going to do. We are going to show that in order to present the gospel message to people today in our generation, it is absolutely essential to establish why they exist and give them reasons, give them evidence.
I trust that over these next twelve lessons we will be able to do that: show that there are facts for creation; show that the evolutionary worldview and these assumptions are based on speculation; and show that in order to be able to present the gospel message to our generation, we need to understand these issues. I trust that this will be a beneficial time for all who are doing this study, Searching for the Truth on Origins.
- Sagan, Carl. Cosmos. New York: Balantine Books. 1985. pg. 200.